Monday, March 25, 2024

Philippine lawmakers grill Miru over controversies surrounding the bidding process and its spotty track record




South Korean voting firm Miru Systems is grappling with mounting controversy following a recent $322 million contract with the Philippines’ Commission on Elections (Comelec) – the nation’s largest-ever polling deal.

The contract has triggered a series of investigations by both houses of Congress, prompted by vocal concerns from election oversight bodies and civil society organizations. These groups have highlighted numerous alleged irregularities within the procurement process, notably that Miru was the only company to submit a bid, supported by the Comelec's previous actions to evade competitors.

Central to the dispute is Miru’s proposition of a prototype voting machine, a submission that Philippine law prohibits. Critics have raised concerns over a potential contravention of the Automated Election Law, which mandates the deployment of systems with a demonstrated track record of success in previous elections. There is unease surrounding Miru's technology, as it amalgamates Optical Mark Reader (OMR) and Direct Recording Electronic (DRE) components, which have not been jointly utilized in past elections, casting doubts on their reliability and legality.

Furthermore, international reports have surfaced detailing issues with Miru’s technology in other countries. Incidences such as faulty voter ID cards disrupting elections in Congo and significant machine malfunctions reported in both Congo and Iraq have only fueled skepticism.

Miru contracts in the Democratic Republic of Congo have been under increased scrutiny after a report by the Center for Research in Public Finance and Local Development, funded by the European Union, revealed malpractices linked to the Congo's Independent National Electoral Commission (CENI) and Miru Systems, including corruption and signs of money laundering. The report highlighted that Miru secured nine contracts in the DR Congo worth over $321 million, with just one undergoing a competitive tender. Notably, the electoral commission procured excess voter cards and ballots and prematurely classified functional voter registration kits as obsolete, leading to unnecessary increased procurement costs and casting doubt on the integrity of contract allocations.

Even worst, the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) sanctioned three senior CENI officials ‘following persistent corruption’. According to the US Treasury Office, Congolese election officials inflated by as much as $100 million the costs for the electronic voting machine contract (signed with Miru) with the intent to use surplus funds for personal enrichment, bribes, and campaign costs to fund the election campaign of Kabila's candidate.

“(…) CENI officials, awarded an election-related contract and doubled the award amount on the understanding that the winning company [Miru] would award the extra funds to a DRC company controlled by CENI leadership.”

As the Philippine Congress delves into the depths of Miru Systems' controversial multi-million dollar contract and the company's questionable track record, concerns raised by both domestic and international entities cast a long shadow over the upcoming 2025 elections. These findings underscore the critical need for transparency, due diligence, and adherence to the rule of law in election-related procurements—a call echoed by vigilant lawmakers and committed civil society advocates. The journey towards a free, fair, and credible election stands at a crossroads, with the integrity of democratic processes in the Philippines, and potentially in other nations, hinging on the outcomes of these rigorous investigations.

Tuesday, March 12, 2024

Philippine Commission on Elections Strikes Historic P17.99 Billion Automation Deal with South Korean Firm



The evolution of election processes in the Philippines has reached a new milestone as the Commission on Elections (Comelec) inks a groundbreaking P17.99 billion deal with South Korea-based Miru Systems Co. Ltd. for the automation of the 2025 midterm elections. This partnership signifies the Philippines' continued commitment to strengthening the democratic process through technological enhancements.

As the sole bidder, Miru Systems has clinched the contract to provide a Full Automation System with Transparency Audit/Count (Fastrac) to Comelec. The deal will encompass the lease of 110,000 automated counting machines, complete election management systems, consolidation and canvassing systems, in addition to delivering ballot printing services, ballot boxes and other necessary peripherals.

Reminiscing on the past electoral journey, the Philippines automated its elections in 2010, pioneering a transformative leap in its democratic processes. Since this pivotal change, the country has smoothly conducted five national elections, witnessing substantial improvements across all key performance indicators following each election cycle. A testament to the technological leap is the significant surge in trust among the populace; from a mere 30% confidence level in manual elections, trust has soared above 80% after embracing election technology.

In 2022, a poll by Pulse Asia underscored the public's overwhelming support for the automated system, revealing that an impressive 90% of Filipino citizens advocate for the continued use of technology in the archipelago's electoral system.

As part of this deal, Miru Systems is set to provide not just hardware, but also customizable systems and specialized software aimed at ensuring the transparency and security of the voting process. Furthermore, the firm will offer comprehensive technical support for the leased machines and systems, showing a full spectrum of support for the election's success.

Despite its innovative prospects, the awarded contract has not been without dissent. Several watchdog groups have voiced concerns over past controversies surrounding Miru Systems's involvement in elections across various countries including Iraq, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Russia.

In response, Comelec Chairman George Erwin Garcia has given his reassurance, stating the poll body’s Special Bids and Awards Committee took cognizance of the allegations but nevertheless advocated for the South Korean firm based on its merit. Supporting their decision, Comelec was equipped with positive certifications from the electoral bodies of Congo and Iraq.

This strategic partnership between Comelec and Miru Systems is poised to usher in a new era for the Philippine elections, empowering the democratic voice of its people with precision, transparency, and unwavering trust in their electoral system.

Tuesday, February 13, 2024

Pakistan’s recent election mess: A sign it is time to modernize its elections

As election results trickled in at a snail’s pace, allegations of rigging reached a crescendo and erupted into swaths of violence across the country. Pakistan’s most recent elections were a perfect recipe for disaster, casting an ominous shadow over the future of the young democracy.

It took authorities three days after the polls closed to announce the results, a delay that put democracy in danger amid bitter and impassioned cries of electoral fraud.

This recent episode is fueling fresh debate about election modernization, and how it could have averted the disaster. The country is not new to the idea, having mulled this initiative for years. Sadly, the plan was mothballed when political noise became too overwhelming.

President Arif Alvi, who is at the forefront of the e-voting advocacy, laments Pakistan’s missed opportunity to prevent the crisis. In a tweet, he rues:

“Remember 'our' long struggle for Electronic Voting Machines. EVM had paper ballots that could be counted separately by hand (like it is being done today) BUT it also had a simple electronic calculator/counter with each vote button pressed. Totals of every candidate would have been available & printed within five minutes of the closing of poll.

The entire effort which included more than 50 meetings at the Presidency alone was scuttled.

Had EVMs been there today, my dear beloved Pakistan would have been spared this crisis.”

Talk is rife about how automation could have led to a dramatically different result:

· Reduced Errors: While hand counting is notoriously vulnerable to human errors, leading to miscalculations and inconsistencies, automation greatly reduces these failure points, ensuring accuracy and transparency.

· Faster Results: Tallying millions of votes manually takes days, the perfect breeding ground for anxiety and speculation. Automation expedites the process by an order of magnitude, providing timely results and reducing post-election tension.

· Increased Integrity: Public skepticism about manual counting is rampant. A transparent, automated system with proper safeguards could bolster public trust in the electoral process, fostering stability and acceptance of the outcome.

· Improved Security: Allegations of vote tampering are less likely with a secure, audited electronic system. Blockchain technology could further enhance security, creating an irrefutable record of votes cast.

Pakistan does not need to look far and wide for successful references as its next-door neighbor India has had a largely successful experience with e-voting election automation. Though its electronic voting machines (EVM) are aging, the world’s largest democracy still uses them to mount large-scale elections with a decent level of credibility.

Despite their frustration, champions of election modernization need to bring every stakeholder to the discussion table one more time where it should be made clear that a peaceful and orderly transfer of power is imperative if Pakistan’s fledgling democracy is to survive.

Wednesday, February 7, 2024

El Salvador's Elections: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly



As the dust settles on El Salvador's February 4 elections, the landslide reelection of President Nayib Bukele tells only part of the story. Amid Bukele's dominating 85% electoral sweep, a parallel narrative unfolded—one that could redefine the Salvadoran electoral landscape for generations. These elections didn't just test the popularity of a president; they put El Salvador's ambitious drive to modernize its voting system under the microscope.

The implementation of new voting technology in the election brought positive lessons, faced tribulations, and experienced turmoil. This analysis reviews the highs and lows encountered in streamlining the country's electoral process.

The Good:

One of the most laudable achievements of the 2022 general elections in El Salvador was the significant strides made in enfranchising the Salvadoran diaspora. Approximately 1.6 million Salvadorans, about 25% of all registered voters, reside abroad and were given the unprecedented opportunity to vote in this election.

The passage of the Special Law for the Exercise of Suffrage Abroad in 2022 was a major milestone. It mandated both internet-based remote voting and in-person electronic voting systems to assure that Salvadorans living outside the country could cast their ballots freely, equally, transparently, and confidentially.

The implementation of these systems appears to have been largely successful, enabling broader participation of expatriate Salvadorans in the democratic process.

The Bad:

Despite these advances, the participation of Salvadorans living abroad was not without its setbacks. In certain instances, polling centers overseas closed prematurely, leaving some voters disenfranchised. According to some official explanations, the provider hired to offer end-to-end services, from online voting to the setting and allocation of vote centers, did not consider the possibility of extending voting hours, a necessity in elections. Those vote centers located in private buildings were not allowed to stay open.

While initial reactions from the authorities suggested that additional voting opportunities might be scheduled to rectify this issue, the Supreme Electoral Tribunal (TSE) ultimately reversed its decision and announced that there would be no extra day of voting. Attorney General Rodolfo Delgado issued a statement, ensuring the public that anyone obstructing the electoral process would be held accountable.

The Ugly:

Perhaps the most disheartening aspect of the election was issues regarding the preliminary results system managed by the TSE itself. On election night, counts from only 31% of polling stations were reported. By Monday morning, figures had only reached 70.25% for the presidential election and a mere 5.06% for legislative positions. The TSE ordered manual vote tallying overnight and later instructed electoral bodies, with urgency, to return original records and election packages.

Poll workers' criticisms included reports of vote duplication or even triplication when processed records were entered into the TSE system. These irregularities were particularly noted during legislative vote scrutiny, raising concerns among voters about the integrity of the electoral process.

The delay in the announcement of election outcomes led an impatient President Bukele to prematurely announce his victory on social media, an action that breached election protocols. Had his advantage in the vote count been less substantial, it is likely that authorities and the public would have been less inclined to accept his early self-declaration of victory.

In conclusion, considering the difficulties encountered, it becomes imperative for the Supreme Electoral Tribunal (TSE) to carefully engage expert vendors with established expertise in managing preliminary election results. Outsourcing this critical aspect to such entities, which usually invest many more resources in developing election solutions, is a practice that typically yields better outcomes than risking the substantial investment and inherent challenges associated with in-house development of these complex technologies. This strategic approach by the TSE would be pivotal.

Wednesday, January 24, 2024

Electronic Voting to Bolster World’s Largest Elections




As India approaches its next general elections, the world turns its eyes to this monumental democratic process, where it is expected that incumbent Prime Minister Narendra Modi will vie for an unprecedented third term. This electoral contest is not just a measure of political winds, but also a testament to the technological advancements that have revolutionized voting in the world's largest democracy.

When Modi was sworn in as the 14th Prime Minister of India in 2014, the employment of Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) had already established itself as the backbone of the Indian electoral framework. Fast forward to the present day, and these devices, developed by the state-owned Electronics Corporation of India and Bharat Electronics, have become emblematic of the country's commitment to election automation.

The introduction of EVMs, which occurred between 1998 and 2001, marked a significant departure from the traditional use of paper ballots. The transformation was aimed at addressing and mitigating the prevalent electoral frauds that marred India's electoral integrity, such as booth capturing and ballot stuffing.

Studies and observational data over the years have consistently provided evidence that EVMs have successfully curbed fraudulent practices, notably reducing the incidence of false ballots and rejection rates due to unclear marking that were common with paper ballots.

EVMs have been instrumental in elevating the inclusivity of the electoral process. Post-poll surveys have shown a notable increase in turnout among vulnerable populations—including women, the elderly, and less-educated voters—pointing towards the empowering nature of the technology.

Despite the progress election administration has seen since the introduction of the technology, concerns about the integrity of India’s EVMs have been raised by experts. Madhav Deshpande, a prominent figure in the technology community, points out the vulnerabilities inherent in EVM technology, which, although not connected to the internet and hence not hackable, still leave room for manipulation. These concerns stem from the fact that EVMs are based on older technology that has not kept pace with advancements, leading to gaps that could potentially be exploited.

In the upcoming elections, with 900 million voters anticipated to participate, India's electronic voting system will again be at the forefront, consolidating its status as the standard and preferred method for conducting elections in the country. EVMs, with their proven track record, are set to play a pivotal role in what is to be the largest democratic exercise in history.

Wednesday, January 10, 2024

2024: A Record-Setting Year in Democracy and Technology



In a watershed moment for democracy, the year 2024 is set to witness an unprecedented scale of electoral participation, with at least 64 countries—including all 27 member states of the European Union—poised to conduct national elections.

This democratic spectacle is projected to engage approximately 49% of the global population, highlighting the sheer magnitude of the citizenry that will exercise their voting rights.

Of particular note, the most populous nations on the planet—India, the United States, Indonesia, Pakistan, Russia, and Mexico—are scheduled to hold pivotal elections that could shape the geopolitical landscape for the foreseeable future.

Technology, too, is slated to leave an indelible impact, as close to half of the electorate will utilize electronic voting machines to cast their ballots, signifying a significant inclusion of modern technology in the democratic process.

The United States commands the spotlight with its comprehensive suite of elections slated for November 5. The American populace will determine their next president while simultaneously voting for the entirety of the House of Representatives and one-third of the Senate. The presidential election is particularly charged with echoes of 2020, as incumbent Democrat Joe Biden is anticipated to once again stand against Republican Donald Trump in what can be seen as a sequential political duel.

India, the world’s most populated country, will hold elections for the Lok Sabha, known as the House of the People. With a vast population of 1.44 billion, a substantial portion of which comprises eligible voters, India's the largest democracy in the world. The procedural undertaking of such an event is colossal, necessitating an extensive deployment of electronic voting machines to ensure a smooth and efficient voting process.

With the shifting winds of political power, the outcomes of these elections carry profound implications for international relations, especially in regions marred by conflict, such as Gaza and Ukraine.

The year 2024 will, therefore, not only be remembered for the historic voter turnout but also for the impact of these elections on the unfolding of global events and the balance of power that influences them.